Introduction: Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a common cause of renal dysfunction.
Objectives: We aimed to describe the epidemiological and etiological profile of acute kidney injury (AKI) in HIV infected patients.
Patients and Methods: This is a descriptive cohort study which was carried out during the period of January 2009 to December 2014 in department of nephrology-internal medicine of university hospital of Treichville. The highest value of serum creatinine (sCr) was used to stage AKI using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) with different stages of AKI. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of mortality.
Results: Our study included 146 patients whose mean age was 42±10 years with a female predominance (sex ratio 0.56). The positive retroviral status was unknown at admission in most cases (63%). The average CD4 cell count was 125±8 cells/mm3. The causes were dominated by infections (67.8%) and water loss (24%). The outcome was favorable in 67% of cases. Factors such as clinical AIDS stage (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.47-5.90; P = 0.002), coma (OR = 9.65; 95% CI = 7.29-11.88; P = 0.001), severity of immunosuppression (P = 0.02), septic shock (OR = 3.70; 95% CI = 1.61-8.49; P = 0.002) and acute pyelonephritis (OR = 9.61; 95% CI = 2.45-37.65; P = 0.001) were associated with mortality in our patients.
Conclusion: AKI occurs at a late stage of HIV/AIDS infection and is in most cases the circumstance of discovery of retroviral infection. The causes are dominated by infections and digestive disorders responsible for water loss.