Chronic renal failure is associated with enhanced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathological systems that are prevalent in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease, most importantly are inflammation and fibrosis. Chronic inflammation is provoked by oxidative stress and chronic degenerative diseases. The inflammatory cells are source of free radicals in the forms of reactive oxygen (O2) and nitrogen species, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered as the most responsible factor in CKD. ROS are able to be harmful in a variety of functional and structures pathways in cells. Oxidative stress rises free radicals are general product of normal aerobic cellular metabolism. While, O2 is vital for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess ROS generation lead into a range of disorders such as CKD. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of development of oxidative stress, biomarkers, the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and the molecular pathways of oxidative stress in CKD.