Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the important illnesses that several risk factors have been suggested for its incident and progression, including lifestyle, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of illness, and age more than 60 years. Recently, a large and growing body of literature has investigated the relation between serum uric acid (SUA) and CKD. Numerous studies have found that SUA is as a possible risk factor for CKD but other studies did not show. Therefore, whether hyperuricemia (HUA) is a marker of chronic renal failure or independent risk factors for CKD is controversial, while, the relationship between the high uric acid levels and CKD is more complex than a simple cause-and-effect association. Uric acid is the end-product oxidation of purine metabolism. Endogenous processes with high cell turnover and environmental factors such as diet and prescribed drugs are associated with uric acid levels. Previous studies have shown that some dietary factors such as soy foods, vitamin C, and low-fat dairy products decrease SUA and other factors such as caffeine, fructose, and meat increase SUA. The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the relationship between CKD, SUA, and dietary factors that influence on SUA.