Iodinated contrast media are administered in imaging procedures and may cause acute kidney injury (AKI) which is called contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) or contrast-associated-AKI (CA-AKI). We searched for relevant articles in PubMed, EMBASE, and DOAJ databases. The most important risk factor for CA-AKI is preexisting renal insufficiency and these patients benefit from administration of low-osmolar contrast media. On the other hand, serum creatinine level is a late indicator of renal function; however, some other biomarkers have been suggested as early indicators of CA-AKI. Furthermore, hydration therapy is the most practical approach to prevent CIN. In this review, we discuss the changes in the contrast materials over the years. We also explore the predictive parameters of developing CIN and its preventive strategies. However, further studies are required to investigate the association between contrast materials and AKI and to find more effective predictive biomarkers and preventive strategies.