Monkeypox is a common disease between humans and animals. The cause of this disease is a member of the Poxviridae family. The transmission of this disease is mostly through aerosol, direct contact and insect bites. Monkeypox has different symptoms; its skin lesions are papules then; they progress toward vesicles and finally create classic pock lesions. The duration of lesions are 4 to 14 days and they are usually seen on hands, feet and face. This disease can cause fever, lymphadenopathy, encephalitis and keratitis. Thus, monkeypox in the course of its development involves several organs. Due to the limited number of studies conducted on this virus, we designed this study to investigate signs, symptoms and effect of monkeypox virus on kidneys and compare with other similar viruses such as other genera of Orthopoxvirus and varicella-zoster.