Introduction: Underlying kidney diseases and their progression cease the function of kidney and raise the need for regular maintenance dialysis. Furthermore, nutritional requirements and blood born viral infections affect their quality of life.
Objectives: This study aims to investigate viral incidence, underlying kidney diseases, nutritional status; and hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity status in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
Patients and Methods: A total of 330 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients were assessed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) viruses using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. The underlying kidney diseases were confirmed by a physician. Eighty-two subjects with diabetic nephropathy are referred to dietitian for nutritional assessments and body mass index (BMI) measurement. Hepatitis B surface antibody (Anti-HBs) tests were done at two different times of year for 94 qualified subjects.
Results: Out of 330 patients 82 (24.8%) had diabetic mellitus (DM), 5 (1.5%) myocardial infarction (MI), 3 (0.9%) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 55 (16.7%) hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN), 3 (0.9%) obstructive nephropathy, 5 (1.5%) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and 4 (1.2%) glomerulonephritis. 45 cases (13.6%) had DM and HTN simultaneously. Eleven percent of diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients had severe malnutrition. Only five men (1.51%) were positive for HBV. No incidence of HCV and HIV was seen. Findings showed a dramatic change for anti-HBs after 6 months.
Conclusion: Despite the advances in medicine, malnutrition and viral diseases still threaten dialysis patients. DM was the most common underlying disease. The safety of dialysis patients for HBV is compromised after regular dialysis, underscoring the importance of strict adherence to vaccination program.