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Submitted: 28 Feb 2023
Accepted: 31 May 2023
ePublished: 03 Jun 2023
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J Ren Endocrinol. 2023;9: e25086.
doi: 10.34172/jre.2023.25086
  Abstract View: 568
  PDF Download: 297

Review

Magnesium deficiency as a contributing factor to type 2 diabetes: a review of the literature

Asal Radmanesh 1 ORCID logo, Setare Choromzade 1 ORCID logo, Esma’il Akade 2 ORCID logo, Mohamad Bahadoram 3 ORCID logo, Gholam Abbas Kaydani 1* ORCID logo

1 Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Medical Virology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Research Center, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Gholam Abbas Kaydani, Email: kaydani-ga@ajums.ac.ir, , Email: kaydani56g@gmail.com

Abstract

Magnesium deficiency is a vital contributing factor to the happening and arising of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Magnesium has a critical function in controlling the level of glucose in the blood and insulin sensitivity, acting as a cofactor for various enzymes such as enzymes involved in carbohydrate oxidation, glucose transport mechanisms of the cell membrane, cell replication, and lipid metabolism. Studies have indicated that reduced magnesium levels in the blood are connected with a significant decline in insulin-mediated glucose uptake which is a vital part of the cell’s metabolism. In people with type 2 diabetes, plasma magnesium concentration was inversely associated with markers of insulin resistance. This means as magnesium levels in plasma decrease, the risk of insulin resistance increases. Additionally, magnesium deficiency can play a role in the development of diabetes by affecting the activity of the Na/K-ATPase enzyme, pancreas inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) modification, lipid metabolism, and causing genetic instability, as the main contributors to type 2 diabetes. Therefore, early detection of magnesium deficiency can help prevent further complications. Physicians should be aware of the connection between magnesium deficiency and diabetes and monitor patients with magnesium deficiency for diabetes symptoms and make sure that the patient is getting adequate amounts of magnesium from their diet. Further research is needed to reveal the exact mechanisms underlying magnesium deficiency-induced type 2 diabetes and the curative effects of magnesium supplementation.

Citation: Radmanesh A, Choromzade S, Akade E, Bahadoram M, Kaydani GA. Magnesium deficiency as a contributing factor to type 2 diabetes: a review of the literature. J Ren Endocrinol. 2023;9:e25086. doi: 10.34172/jre.2023.25086.
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